Common Forms of

Chronic pain is very complex and everyone experiences it differently—there is definitely no one-size-fits all.
  • It can be associated with surgery, trauma or other condition, or it can exist without a clear reason.
  • It can be a symptom of other diseases, or it can be a stand-alone condition.
  • It might show up in a scan or test, or there may be no evidence of its existence.
  • It can occur anywhere in the body, or at multiple sites.
  • One person can have several forms of pain, or just one.
    It can be daily, or recurrent (such as migraine).
Visceral Pain
Persistent Post-Surgical Pain
Pelvic Pain
Orofacial Pain
Neuropathic Pain
Musculoskeletal Pain
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
Childhood Pain
Cancer Pain
Arthritis Pain
Adolescent Pain
Chronic Pain

Visceral Pain

What is Visceral pain?

What is visceral pain?

Visceral pain is any pain originating from an internal organ and can indicate a possible problem within an organ. It tends to occur in the abdomen, chest, or intensities and often presents as generalized pain which is hard to localize.

What are the symptoms of viscera pain?

Typical complaints are a sensation of aching, pressure or deep squeezing and may be accompanied by vomiting, nausea or changes in vital signs.


The goal of treatment is to ease the patient’s pain and to address the root cause of the problem where possible. Identification of the underlying cause of pain allows for systematic medical management towards recovery.

However, if this is not possible, a multidisciplinary pain approach in conjunction with self-management is utilized to address the patient’s pains.


Treating Visceral Pain


Persistent Post-Surgical Pain

What is Persistent Post-Surgical pain?

Persistent post-surgical pain presents as a pain for a duration of 3 months or longer which develops after a surgery. This typically occurs as a result of nerve damage either due to the patient’s medical condition or the surgery. Patients may complain of numbness, shooting pain, burning pain or altered sensitivity at the surgical site.

Although it is difficult to predict who may develop such pains, there are risk factors which increase the chances of developing postoperative persistent pain.

  • Chronic pain
  • Obesity
  • Degree of postoperative pain
  • Dependence on painkillers
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Infection
  • Bleeding
  • Chemotherapy

The intensity of pain during the first few days after a surgery are a strong indication for the development of persistent pain. Oftentimes patients do not utilise these medications even if they are experiencing high levels of pain due to a variety of factors including a fear of addiction or misconceptions of the use of such painkillers.

Since adequate pain relief after undergoing an operation is crucial in preventing persistent pain, it is important to be educated on such matters prior to the surgery, monitor pain levels after the procedure and to inform the medical staff if the pain does not begin to subside days after the surgery.


Persistent Postsurgical Pain

Pelvic Pain

What is Pelvic pain?

Pelvic pain is typically an indication of irregularities with internal organs or pain from the pelvic bones. In women, it may indicate problems with the reproductive organs in the pelvic region.

What are the symptoms of pelvic pain?

  • Bloating
  • Bowel and bladder issues
  • Muscle spasms
  • Painful sex
  • Fatigue
  • Anxiety
  • Low mood

These problems may arise from childbirth, cycling, hip and pelvis injuries, chronic constipation and overactive pelvic floor muscles.


Treating pelvic pain depends on its cause, intensity and frequency of pain. Common interventions include prescription of medication by doctors, physiotherapy and if needed, surgery in severe cases. Working with psychiatrists and psychologists is also useful for patients suffering from chronic pelvic pain to assist in managing the accompanying stresses associated with the condition. Other management strategies include the use of a heat pack and incorporating stretches into the daily routine.


What is Pelvic Pain

Male Pelvic Pain

Female Pelvic Pain

Postpartum Pelvic Pain

Orofacial Pain

What is Orofacial pain?

Orofacial pain is muscular, nerve or joint pain which is felt anywhere on the face, head, neck or mouth.

What are the symptoms of orofacial pain?

  • Involuntary muscle contractions of jaw or tongue
  • Locking and clicking of jaw
  • Tinnitus
  • Vertigo or dizziness
  • Frequent coughing or constant throat clearing
  • Swallowing difficulties
  • Teeth grinding at night
  • Headaches

Since orofacial pain is a broad term used to describe symptoms of pain and/or dysfunction in the head and neck region, its causes can range from neck pain, sleep disorders, trauma, and neurovascular disorders to temporomandibular disorders.


The management of orofacial pain involves a multidisciplinary approach involving a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches.

Self-management strategies like jaw relaxation techniques, self-education and cognitive or behavioral self-regulation are also useful in reducing pain in patients with orofacial pain.

Neuropathic Pain

What is Neuropathic pain?

Neuropathic pain is pain, which results from disease or damage to nerves and is commonly caused by surgery, disease, accidents or chemotherapy.

What are the symptoms of neuropathic pain?

  • Burning pain
  • Shooting pain
  • Stabbing pain
  • Electric shocks
  • Numbness
  • Tingling
  • Pins and needles


Neuropathic pain can present as a stand-alone condition or together with other forms of pain. It is typically managed by a multidisciplinary team with the aim of identifying the underlying cause and relieving pain.


Understanding neuropathic pain

Musculoskeletal Pain

What is Musculoskeletal pain?

Musculoskeletal pain occurs when there is irritation, damage or dysfunction to muscles, bones, tendons, ligaments and nerves.

These pains may be localized but sometimes radiate to other areas in the body. The can also be acute and occur for a short period of time, or chronic and long lasting.

What are the causes of musculoskeletal pain?

  • Sports injuries
  • Poor ergonomics
  • Accidents
  • Repetitive strain injuries
  • Overuse injuries
  • Poor biomechanics

Common areas of pain include

    • Back
    • Neck
    • Shoulder
    • Knee
    • Ankle


Musculoskeletal pains can be managed with self-management strategies and if necessary a multidisciplinary approach involving doctors, physiotherapists and other pain professionals.


Causes of musculoskeletal pain

Why do my joints hurt?


What is Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory and mood issues. Researchers believe that fibromyalgia amplifies painful sensations by affecting the way your brain and spinal cord process painful and non-painful signals.

The condition typically develops between the ages of 30 and 50, but can occur in people of any age, including children and the elderly. It is more likely to affect women.


Treatment tends to be a combination of different approaches including medicine – such as antidepressants and painkillers, talking therapies- such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and counselling, lifestyle changes – such as exercise programmes and relaxation techniques

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

What is Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)?

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a broad term describing excess and prolonged pain and inflammation that follows an injury to an arm or leg, a surgery, a stroke or a heart attack.

People with CRPS have changing combinations of spontaneous pain or excess pain that is much greater than normal following something as mild as a touch.

What are the symptoms CRPS pain?

Other symptoms include changes in skin color, temperature, and/or swelling on the arm or leg below the site of injury. Pain is constant, sharp, burning, pricking or shooting in nature.

There may be associated numbness and increased sensitivity to touch.

Childhood Pain

What is childhood pain?

Childhood chronic pain affects at least 5% of the population under the age of 18. Chronic pain in the pediatric and adolescent population is becoming increasingly prevalent. Juvenile fibromyalgia, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), functional abdominal pain, chronic headaches, joint hypermobility, and neuropathic pain are all chronic pain conditions that commonly occur in pediatric patients.

What are the causes of childhood pain?

Chronic pain also often includes a tremendous psychological and social burden; children with ongoing pain regularly miss school, are unable to participate in activities, have reduced social relationships, and are three times more likely to have symptoms of anxiety and depression than children without pain.

Cancer Pain

What is cancer pain?

Cancer pain takes many forms. It can be dull, achy, sharp or burning. It can be constant, intermittent, mild, moderate or severe. How much pain you feel depends on a number of factors, including the type of cancer you have, how advanced it is, where it’s situated and your pain tolerance.

If the pain is from the cancer itself, it can be from the cancer growing into or destroying nearby tissue. As a tumor grows, it can press on nerves, bones or organs. The tumor can also release chemicals that can cause pain. Alternatively, your body’s reaction to the chemicals can cause pain.


Treatment of the cancer can help the pain in these situations. However, cancer treatments, including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, also can cause pain.

Factors that can directly impact the ability to control a patient’s pain

Emotions, including anxiety and depression, Cognition, such as a person’s confidence in his or her ability to cope with pain, pain catastrophizing, and hopelessness, Social context, including the support a patient receives from his or her partner or family

These factors, along with the physical, tissue, and nerve-injury-related components of pain, are all core contributors to cancer pain.

Arthritis Pain

What is arthritis pain?

Arthritis is a name for a group of conditions affecting the joints. There are over 100 forms of arthritis. These conditions cause damage to the joints, usually resulting in pain and stiffness. Arthritis can affect many different parts of the joint and nearly every joint in the body.

Anyone can get arthritis, including children and young people. Arthritis can affect people from all backgrounds, ages and lifestyles.

What are the most common forms of arthritis pain?

  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Gout
  • Ankylosing spondylitis

What are the symptoms of arthritis pain?

  • Pain
  • Stiffness or reduced movement of a joint
  • Swelling in a joint
  • Redness and warmth in a joint

General symptoms, such as tiredness, weight loss or feeling unwell. Management of arthritis will depend on the type of arthritis but the most important strategies include regular exercise and controlling one’s weight.

Adolescent Pain

What is adolescent pain?

Adolescents with untreated or poorly treated chronic pain often drop out of school and can become socially withdrawn and isolated. They are also at risk of mental health issues such as anxiety and depression.

What are the most common forms of adolescent pain?

Some of the most common chronic pain disorders in teenagers include primary headaches, centrally mediated abdominal pain syndromes, and/or chronic/recurrent musculoskeletal and joint pain.

When should you seek help?

If your child is suffering from persistent adolescent pain, it is advisable to visit a pediatrics pain specialist

Chronic Pain

What is chronic pain?

  • Chronic pain is very complex and everyone experiences it differently—there is definitely no one-size-fits all.
  • It can be associated with surgery, trauma or other condition, or it can exist without a clear reason.
  • It can be a symptom of other disease, or it can be a stand-alone condition.
  • It might show up in a scan or test, or there may be no evidence of its existence.
  • It can occur anywhere in the body, or at multiple sites.
  • One person can have several forms of pain, or just one.
  • It can be daily, or recurrent (such as migraine).